【法的位階與三權】 ●eachouchen / 雲程譯(2010.05.20) st1\00003a*{}table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";}【Remark】 網友eachouchen的回應,常常很有趣。這是震聾啟聵的他山之石,因此翻譯並轉貼。題目是我自己加的。 【法的位階與三權】 ●eachouchen / 雲程譯(2010.05.20) 很難向從沒現代民主社會,擁有獨立三權(立法、行政、 代償司法)生活經驗的人去解釋法律與命令的不同。怎麼可能期望他們理解法律、命令、聲明或公報的不同?絕大多數的美國法律由國會批准通過,並由總統簽署發佈。少數則由法院判決,如與婦女墮胎權有關,由美國聯邦最高法院之Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973)決定。命令、聲明與公報並非法律?居酒屋A假使其尚未經過國會批准並由總統簽署發佈,也未由聯邦最高法院判決者。 〈舊金山和約〉(SFPT)與〈台灣關係法〉(TRA)是法律,因此所有美國人,即使貴為美國總統,在涉及台灣地位時也必須遵守。不過,為何任何美國行政官員談及台灣地位時,必稱〈台灣關係法〉與〈上海公報〉呢?原因是前者為法律,而後者是告 辦公室出租訴中國「他們知道中國的意見」。這是平撫中國的唯一辦法。 中國要成為現代社會,要中國人理解現代文明社會如何運作,還要很久很久的時間才行。日本花了50年以上,才教育台灣人理解現代文明,以及變得有教養。即使台灣人在戰後被迫向下沈淪多年,但近年,台灣人終究再找回來。我們要期待中國人,多久才能達到與日本或美國或歐洲國家 個人信貸一樣? It is very difficult to explain the difference between law and order to any persons who do not have and experiences in modern democracy of independent legislative, executive, and judicial branches in their lifetime. How can we expect them to understand the difference in law, order, declaration and communique? Most laws in t 系統傢俱he United States are approved by the Congress and signed by the President. Few are decided by the Court, such as Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973) of woman's right to an abortion by Supreme Court of the United States . The order, declaration and communique are not laws yet, because it is neither approved by the Congress and signed by the President nor 網路行銷 decided by the Supreme Court. The San Francisco Peace Treaty and Taiwan Relations Act are laws that all American, even the President of the United States , have to follow those laws. However, when any administrative officers of the United States are talking Taiwan status, they will mention Taiwan Relations Act and Shanghai Communique. Why? Well, one is the law for them to 結婚西裝 follow and the other is to tell China that they already acknowledge the opinion of China . It is the only way to pacify China . It is still a very, very long way for China to become one modern society and Chinese to realize what modern civilization are doing. It takes more than fifty years for Japan to educate Taiwanese to know modern civilization and to become discipline. Even Taiwanese have 吳哥窟set back after WWII for many years, however Taiwanese regain it lately. Do we expect how many years for Chinese to reach the modernized civilization as Japan or the United States or European countries?(2010.05.20) table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";} 【相關閱讀】 【剩餘主權與台灣臨時政府】 ●eachouchen / 雲程譯(2010.05.31) 【剩餘主權】 ●eachouchen / 雲程譯(2010.0 室內設計6.02) 【ROC─金馬─TCG】 ●eachouchen / 雲程譯(2010.05.28) 美國官員的訓練 eachouchen / 雲程譯2010.05.08 台灣地位美日合演 eachouchen / 雲程譯2010.05.21 台灣地位中國早知仍裝蒜 eachouchen / 雲程譯2010.05.10 法的位階與三權 eachouchen / 雲程譯2010.05.20 流亡政府簽和平協定之後呢 eachouchen / 雲程譯2010.06.15 .msgcontent .wsharing ul li { text-indent: 0; } 分享 Facebook Plurk YAHOO! 室內裝潢  .

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          第二代〈美日安保條約〉(1960.01.19) ●雲程譯(2010.01.19) st1\00003a*{}table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";}【Comment】 一般所稱的〈美日安保條約〉,是1960.01.19(今天正好50週年)簽署的,是用來修改並取代1951.09.08簽署於舊金山市附近美軍軍事基地的第一代〈美日安保條約〉。 最有趣的仍然是領土規定。第5條有:「任一締約國在日本施政下的領土」,亦即「美國或日本在日本施政下的領土」。這條規定鋪陳了第6條「美國得使用日本陸、海、空軍設施與區域」。但是,相互間的關係,對不知世事的我們而言,仍舊撲朔迷離。 總之,今天是第二代〈美日安保條約〉50週年的日子,今年也是日韓合併的100週年,以及韓戰60週年。很熱鬧的一年呢! 【若翻譯有誤或不妥,請網友不吝告知。對於外文,我還是學習者,臉皮厚而已。】 第二代〈美日安保條約〉(1960.01.19) ●雲程譯(2010.01.19) 〈美國與日本間共同合作與安全條約〉 Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between Japan and the United States of America 日本與美國為?東森房屋[強兩國間傳統友好聯繫,與維護民主原則、個人自由與依法而致, 期望鼓勵兩國之經濟合作與促進經濟穩定與福祉之條件, 重申兩國對於〈聯合國憲章〉之目的與原則之信念,並期望所有人民與政府皆能和平生活, 承認兩國擁有〈聯合國憲章〉所重申之個別與集體自衛之固有權利, 考慮兩國共同關切維持遠東之國際和平, 決心締結共同合作與安全條約,如下: Japan and the United States of America, Desiring to strengthen the bonds of peace and friendship traditionally existing between them, and to uphold the principles of democracy, individual liberty, and the rule of law, Desiring further to encourage closer economic cooperation between them and to promote conditions of economic stability and well-being in their countries, Reaffirming their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and their desire to live in peace with all 保濕面膜peoples and all governments, Recognizing that they have the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense as affirmed in the Charter of the United Nations, Considering that they have a common concern in the maintenance of international peace and security in the Far East, Having resolved to conclude a treaty of mutual cooperation and security , Therefore agree as follows: 【第一條】 締約國接受〈聯合國憲章〉所定以和平方式解決彼此間之任何國際爭端,使能在不危及國際和平、安全與正義下獲得解決,以及在其國際關係上,不威脅或不使用武力侵犯任何國家之領土完整或政治獨立,或不使用違反〈聯合國憲章〉目的之方法。 締約國將與其餘愛好和平之國家共同合作,以強化聯合國維持國際和平與安全之任務。 ARTICLE I The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to settle any international disputes in which they may be involved by peace 保濕面膜ful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state , or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations. The Parties will endeavor in concert with other peace-loving countries to strengthen the United Nations so that its mission of maintaining international peace and security may be discharged more effectively . 【第二條】 締約國將持續進一步以加強其自由之制度、以加深對此制度基礎的理解,及以促進穩定與福祉之條件,發展和平與友好之國際關係。尋求消除彼此之國際經濟政策之衝突,且鼓勵相互間之經濟合作。 ARTICLE II The Parties will contribute toward the further development of peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free insti 烤肉tutions, by bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions are founded, and by promoting conditions of stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between them. 【第三條】 締約國個別與相互合作,透過持續與有效之自助與相互援助,基於兩國憲法條款,以維持與發展兩國防衛武裝攻擊之能力。 ARTICLE III The Parties, individually and in cooperation with each other, by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid will maintain and develop, subject to their constitutional provisions, their capacities to resist armed attack. 【第四條】 締約國隨時共同諮詢有關本條約之執行,在日本或遠東國際和平與安全受威脅時,得基於任一方之請求進行協商。 ARTICLE IV The Parties will consult together from time to time regarding the implementation of this Treaty, 西裝外套 and, at the request of either Party, whenever the security of Japan or international peace and security in the Far East is threatened. 【第五條】 各締約國承認:武裝攻擊任一締約國在日本施政下的領土,將視為危及本國之和平與安全,各國基於其憲法條款與程序,聲明此為共同危險。任何此等武裝攻擊與所有造成此結果之行為,應根據〈聯合國憲章〉第51條之規定立即報告聯合國安理會。當安理會以採取必要步驟恢復與維持國際和平與安全時,此武裝攻擊行為應予以終止。 ARTICLE V Each Party recognizes that an armed attack against either Party in the territories under the administration of Japan would be dangerous to its own peace and safety and declares that it would act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional provisions and processes. Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall be immediately reported to the Security Council of the United Nations in accordance with the provisions of Ar 辦公室出租ticle 51 of the Charter. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security. 【第六條】 為日本安全與維持遠東國際和平與安全,美國得使用日本陸、海、空軍設施與區域。其使用之設施與區域,與美國軍隊在日本之地位,應另定協議管理之,以取代1952年2月28日簽署於東京之〈日本與美國安全條約〉(含修訂)第三條之行政協定,以及其他雙方同意之協定。 ARTICLE VI For the purpose of contributing to the security of Japan and the maintenance of international peace and security in the Far East, the United States of America is granted the use by its land, air and naval forces of facilities and areas in Japan . The use of these facilities and areas as well as the status of United States armed forces in Japan shall be governed by a separate agreement, replacing the Administrative Agreement under Article III of the Security Treaty between Japan and the Uni 房屋貸款ted States of America, signed at Tokyo on February 28, 1952, as amended, and by such other arrangements as may be agreed upon. 【第七條】 本條約不影響亦不得視為影響〈聯合國憲章〉會員國對維護國際和平與安全之權利與義務。 ARTICLE VII This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations or the responsibility of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security. 【第八條】 本條約應由日本與美國各依據其本國憲法程序批准,條約並將於東京交換批准書時生效。 ARTICLE VIII This Treaty shall be ratified by Japan and the United States of America in accordance with their respective constitutional processes and will enter into force on the date on which the instruments of ratification thereof have been ex-changed by them in Tokyo . 【第九條】 日本與美國在1951年9月8日於舊金山所簽署之安全條約,應於本條約生效時廢止。 辦公室出租ARTICLE IX The Security Treaty between Japan and the United States of America signed at the city of San Francisco on September 8, 1951 shall expire upon the entering into force of this Treaty. 【第十條】 本條約在聯合國能符合維持日本地區國際和平與安全之安措施生效後,且日本政府與美國政府認為前應持續有效。 但,在本條約生效後10年,任一締約國得通知另一締約國終止本條約之意圖,則本條約於接到通知後一年失效。 ARTICLE X This Treaty shall remain in force until in the opinion of the Governments of Japan and the United Sates of America there shall have come into force such United Nations arrangements as will satisfactorily provide for the maintenance of international peace and security in the Japan area. However, after the Treaty has been in force for ten years, either Party may give notice to the other Party of its intention to terminate the Treaty, in which case the Treaty shall terminate one year after such notice has been given. st1\00003a*{}table.MsoNormalTable {font-siz 設計裝潢e:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";} st1\00003a*{}table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";} 下列全權代表簽署本條約,以昭信守。 本約簽署於1960年1月19日在華盛頓,日文及英文各繕二份共同做準。 IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty. DONE in duplicate at Washington in the Japanese and English languages, both equally authentic, this 19th day of January, 1960. 日本代表:FOR JAPAN : 岸信介(Nobusuke Kishi) 藤山愛一郎(Aiichiro Fujiyama) 石井光次郎(Mitsujiro Ishii) 足立正(Tadashi Adachi) 朝海浩一郎(Koichiro Asakai) 美國代表:FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Christian A. Herter Douglas MacArthur 2nd J. Graham Parsons table.MsoNormalTable {font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";} 【相關文件】 第二代〈美日安保條約〉 〈中美共同防禦條約〉(1954.12.03--1979.12.31)   .msgcontent .wsharing ul li { text-indent: 0; } 分享 Facebook Plurk YAHOO! 西裝外套  .

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          日蝕大哉問 如樓下兩篇2009.07.22的日蝕的照片,在興奮之餘(有「雲」所以能拍攝?關鍵字行銷an>^竟然忽略了 商務中心奇異的現象。檢視照片之後發覺有兩組狀態: 小型辦公室一組是「勾勾朝上」、一組是「勾勾朝下」。兩組都是從「初 辦公室出租虧」到「蝕甚」的上半場所拍(即約略在0940前所拍),並無下半場的照片。 房地產為何為有此不同? 一個最簡單的可能性,是我歪著拿相機。可是,我是一位有攝影經驗的人,不喜歡也不 永慶房屋至於歪著拿相機,特別是即使豎著拍也絕對不會不對將快門放在下方。換言之,要「勾勾朝上」變成「勾勾朝下」,必須將快 東森房屋門置於下側,這並非我的習慣。 那,會是因為「黃道面」(太陽軌道面)與白道面(月球軌道面),以及地軸的相對運動,以致於月球遮日的軌跡不是 台灣房屋直線,而是弧線嗎? 請網友指點一下下。 謝謝。 .msgcontent .wsharing ul li { text-indent: 0; } 分享 Facebook Plurk YAHOO! 看房子  .

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          從度量衡不統一,講到幣制混亂 教科書告訴我們,秦始皇統一文字(書同文),統一道路(車同軌),以及統一度量衡。書同文!顯然是有的;車同軌?懷疑;統一度量衡?屁話,或神話一樁。 大清 酒店兼職下半葉到整個中華民國時期,中國發行著幾百種各式各樣的貨幣。大清官方銀行、各省、地方銀行, 酒店工作外國銀行發行貨幣這是我們所知道的。甚至地方錢莊,還有八竿子打不著的各種同業公會,也發行屬於自己的通貨。至於革命軍、軍閥?烤肉o行的軍票就不用講了。 貨幣發行的混亂,教科書都暗指西方列強的逼迫。但這只是原因之一,大清官員的懶惰,以及度量衡的未統一可能才是主要 租辦公室原因。 當時,大清官員在徵稅問題上完全交給地方,只要時間到交出稅金就成了。鴉片戰爭後,清政府因為軍需、賑災、治水等經費需求,決定成立官銀錢號發行貨幣,用以搭 九份民宿配八旗薪資、官員公費、與各項工程等。太平天國之後,大清財政已快崩潰,開始發行官票寶鈔,以籌現款。對於地方,就「自為出入」逐漸的地方就有了發行自有通貨。 不過,還有一個原因。 大家都 澎湖民宿知道,原先的交易都以貴金屬為媒介。但因為遠途運送太重,所以出現匯票(即所謂的交子、飛錢),漸漸的有了貨幣的雛形。也就是因為這樣,貨幣的發行是可以兌換等值的貴金屬,這樣規定也多寫在貨幣上成為發行當局的「 關鍵字廣告誓言」。 中國發行的貨幣原先是發行銀兩票。銀兩票絕對是地方貨幣,因為每個地方的度量衡不統一。廣東的 一兩 ,不等於湖南的 一兩 。若發行全國性的銀兩票,就會產生糾紛以及套利的狀態。從而限制了貨幣的全國性發行,據統計所謂的「戶部銀行」發行 代償28種銀兩票,原因在此。後來才有銀元票與錢票兩種的追加。 這樣說來,教科書所講統一全國度量衡,根本是神話一則。 順便講一下,日本統治台灣時,也是遇到幾種貨幣同時流通的現象,包括墨西哥鷹揚銀幣、中國銀元,最糟糕的是碎銀。人們找錢是用刀子將銀兩?成?租屋珥n的份量,久而久之就有碎銀,而妨礙交易。這點,中國可能更嚴重,因為度量衡不統一。 但是,日本就是有辦法將之統一起來,並指定發行機關「台灣銀行」發行現代化的貨幣「台幣」。這樣看來,日本與中國的統治技術,至少在當時是不成比例的,而且除了視野與知識之外,還有勤勞與否的問 房地產題。  .

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